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Open Science, Open Culture – The CREATe IP Summer Summit 2017. CREATe’s research programme has focused on the concept of openness since its inception (see Openness and open business models). The Open Science research stream, established in 2016, considers the legal conditions for the production of, and access to knowledge and culture. Openness is an aspirational goal to build transparent and participative societies. The CREATe IP Summer Summit jointly organized with Delhi National Law University in June 2017, convened renowned international experts from a variety of fields with a common key interest. The programme was led by CREATe academics (Prof. Martin Kretschmer, Dr. Sukhpreet Singh, Dr. Thomas Margoni, Dr. Kris Erickson, Kerry Patterson and Jesus Rodriguez Perez), and featured a keynote talk on fair use by leading copyright scholar Prof. Peter Jaszi (American University Washington). Speakers came from Delhi National Law University (Prof. G S Bajpai, Dr. Arul Scaria), Imperial College (Chris Banks), UK Intellectual Property Office (Margaret Haig), Higher Education Funding Council for England, HEFCE (Claire Fraser), IP Australia (Dr. George Vuckovic), University of Trento (Prof. Roberto Caso) and the University of Strathclyde (Dr. Saskia Vermeylen).

Open Science can be defined as a model of doing science that relies on the concept of openness throughout its life cycle. This includes different aspects such as open access to publications and data (both research- and meta-data), as well as open methodologies, open peer review, free and open source software and much more. Openness is present in all aspects of the scientific enquiry and should be embraced by all actors participating in scientific projects. It has been effectively stated that “Open Science opens up the research lifecycle … It creates a new modus operandi for science, where all stakeholders … are involved and research is organised, linked, verified, facilitated by new technologies and enhanced with collaborative and coordinative activities. Legal barriers in accessing and sharing information and data, as well as utilisation of data-intensive, cost-demanding infrastructures are among the issues that are eliminated with Open Science”.

CREATe’s research programme has been focusing on the development of the concept of Open Science and of the tools that will enable a more open scientific environment from a socio-legal perspective.


Four main research projects have focused on different aspects of Open Science:

OpenAIRE Advance

H2020, 2018 – 2021
Total budget: €9,999,997.50
Glasgow: £108,715

OpenAIRE-Advance continues the mission of OpenAIRE to support the Open Access/Open Data mandates in Europe. By sustaining the current successful infrastructure, comprised of a human network and robust technical services, it consolidates its achievements while working to shift the momentum among its communities to Open Science, aiming to be a trusted e-Infrastructure within the realms of the European Open Science Cloud. In this next phase, OpenAIRE-Advance strives to empower its National Open Access Desks (NOADs) so they become a pivotal part within their own national data infrastructures, positioning Open Access and Open Science onto national agendas. The capacity building activities bring together experts on topical task groups in thematic areas (open policies, RDM, legal issues, TDM), promoting a train the trainer approach, strengthening and expanding the pan-European Helpdesk with support and training toolkits, training resources and workshops. It examines key elements of scholarly communication, i.e., co-operative OA publishing and next generation repositories, to develop essential building blocks of the scholarly commons. Dr. Thomas Margoni (Glasgow PI) coordinates the legal task force in IP, data and open science. Researchers: Amy Thomas, Daniel Astone, Ally Farnhill (Glasgow – CREATe).


Data Licensing – Choose the Right Rights, Use the Data Right

JISC, 2018 – 2019

The data licencing project specifically aims to offer guidance and support to creators of data to help them easily understand and choose the most appropriate licence to release their dataset under; to offer guidance and support to consumers of datasets to help them easily understand what they can and cannot do with data that they use under a specific licence or a combination of licences; to provide support to assist creators and consumers in their choice of licences and dataset usage; and to provide guidance for use in the Jisc Research Data Shared Service. PI Dr. Thomas Margoni and Valerie McCutcheon.

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H2020, 2015 – 2018
Total budget: €5,375,535
Glasgow: £174,631

Recent years witness an upsurge in the quantities of digital research data, offering new insights and opportunities for improved understanding. Text and data mining is emerging as a powerful tool for harnessing the power of structured and unstructured content and data, by analysing them at multiple levels and in several dimensions to discover hidden and new knowledge. However, text mining solutions are not easy to discover and use, nor are they easily combinable by end users. OpenMinTeD aspires to enable the creation of an infrastructure that fosters and facilitates the use of text mining technologies in the scientific publications world, builds on existing text mining tools and platforms, and renders them discoverable and interoperable through appropriate registries and a standards-based interoperability layer, respectively.  Through its infrastructural activities, OpenMinTeD’s vision is to make operational a virtuous cycle in which a) primary content is accessed through standardised interfaces and access rules b) by well-documented and easily discoverable text mining services that process, analyse, and annotate text c) to identify patterns and extract new meaningful actionable knowledge, which will be used d) for structuring, indexing, and searching content and, in tandem, e) acting as new knowledge useful to draw new relations between content items and firing a new mining cycle. Dr. Thomas Margoni (PI for Glasgow) coordinated the legal working group. Researchers: Dr. Giulia Dore.


Enabling Open Science Through Open Access

ESRC IAA, 2016 – 2017

Enabling Open Science through Open Access Licences, funded by an ESRC IAA fund  analysed the complex issue of Open Access licensing and Open Science best practices from a legal perspective. It focused in particular on the role played by Creative Commons licences in enabling Open Science best practices and on the common mistakes and misconceptions in this often uncertain field. The work conducted under this project led, among other results, to the publication of an Open Science fact-sheet and an Open Access FAQ. PI Dr. Thomas Margoni. Researcher: Dr. Andrea Wallace.

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Project Reports and Academic Outputs

Margoni, T. (2020) Text and data mining in intellectual property law: towards an autonomous classification of computational legal methods. CREATe Working Paper 01/2020, forthcoming in in Calboli I. & Montagnani L., Handbook on Intellectual Property Research , OUP, 2020.

Flynn, S., Geiger, C., Quintais, J. P., Margoni, T. , Sag, M., Guibault, L. and Carroll, M. (2020) Implementing user rights for research in the field of artificial intelligence: a call for international action. European Intellectual Property Review, 2020, Issue 7, available at:

Labastida, I., Margoni, T. (2019), Licensing FAIR data for reuse, in Data Intelligence, pp. 199-207.

Margoni, T. (2018) Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and EU copyright law: Who owns AI? CREATe Working Paper, published in AIDA 2018.

Eckart de Castilho, R., Dore, G., Margoni, T. , Labropoulou, P. and Gurevych, I. (2018) A Legal Perspective on Training Models for Natural Language Processing. In: LREC 2018, Miyazaki, Japan, 7-12 May 2018.

Margoni, T. (2018) Digitising the public domain: Non original photographs in comparative EU copyright law. In: Fitzgerald, B. and Gilchrist, J. (eds.) Copyright, Property and the Social Contract: The Reconceptualisation of Copyright. Springer.

Burrow, S. , Margoni, T. and McCutcheon, V. (2018) Information Guide: Choosing a Licence for Research Data. CREATe, University of Glasgow, 2018. Documentation. University of Glasgow.

Burrow, S. , Margoni, T. and McCutcheon, V. (2018) Information Guide: FAQ: Using Research Data. CREATe, University of Glasgow, 2018. Documentation. University of Glasgow.

Burrow, S. , Margoni, T. and McCutcheon, V. (2018) Information Guide: Introduction to Ownership of Rights in Research Data. CREATe, University of Glasgow, 2018. Documentation. University of Glasgow.

Burrow, S. , Margoni, T. and McCutcheon, V. (2018) Information Guide: Making Research Data Available. CREATe, University of Glasgow, 2018. Documentation. University of Glasgow.

McCutcheon, V. , Burrows, S. and Margoni, T. (2017) Choose the Right Rights, Use the Data Right. Project Report. University of Glasgow and JISC.

Margoni, T. , Caso, R., Ducato, R., Guarda, P. and Moscon, V. (2016) Open access, open science, open society. In: Loizides, F. and Schmidt, B. (eds.) Positioning and Power in Academic Publishing : Players, Agents and Agendas. IOS Press: Amsterdam. ISBN 9781614996484.

Margoni, T. and Peters, D. M. (2016) Creative Commons Licenses: empowering open access. Editorial Office News, 9(2).

de Castilho, R. E., Ananiadou, S., Margoni, T., Peters, W. and Piperidis, S. (Eds.) (2016) Cross-Platform Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Interoperability – Proceedings of the LREC2016 conference. European Language Resources Association.

Labropoulou, P., Piperidis, S. and Margoni, T. (2016) Legal Interoperability Issues in the Framework of the OpenMinTeD Project: A Methodological Overview. In: LREC 2016 Workshop: Cross-Platform Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Interoperability, Portorož, Slovenia, 23-28 May 2016.

Guibault, L. and Margoni, T. (2015) Legal aspects of open access to publicly funded research. In: Enquires into intellectual property’s economic impact. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, pp. 373-414.


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