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About CREATe


CREATe is the Centre for Regulation of the Creative Economy, anchored in intellectual property, competition, information and technology law. The name is an acronym for Creativity, Regulation, Enterprise and Technology. We were established in 2012 as the result of a competition for a national centre for “copyright and new business models in the creative economy”. As the only UK research centre funded jointly by AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council), EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) and ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council), we conceived and delivered an interdisciplinary research programme at the intersection of law, technology, social sciences and humanities.

In 2017, we received follow-on funding from the AHRC. In 2018 and 2020, we won two large grants as part of the AHRC Creative Industries Policy & Evidence Centre (PEC) and the H2020 project “reCreating Europe: Rethinking digital copyright law for a culturally diverse, accessible, creative Europe”. We are now a University of Glasgow research centre hosted by the School of Law (a global top 50 law school). We provide resources and new research of national and international significance as part of the University’s Advanced Research Centre (ARC).

Projects are currently organised under Creative Industries, Public Domain and Competition and Markets. Problem focused research is supported by resource pages and tagged with disciplinary icons. This approach allows new priorities to emerge organically. Following the award of a major infrastructure award from the AHRC in late 2023, CREATe announced at the relaunch event on 11 March 2024 its agenda for the next five years with an exhibition of seven themes at the intersection of Creativity, Technology and Markets. These themes are (1) Dealing with Creators, (2) Legal History and Cultural Memory, (3) The Law of Innovation, (4) Automation, Decentralisation and Platforms, (5) Access to Knowledge, (6) The Political Economy of Digital Regulation, and (7) Digital Technologies and Humanism.

Our work is guided by three principles.


In a contested policy environment with limited evidence, synthesizing knowledge from different fields requires an open approach. CREATe has demonstrated that it is possible to involve users in research design at all stages, and in the development of dynamic, open access resources. Our resources receive 100,000s of visitors per year from over 160 countries.


The norms governing the information space are not a legal problem. Research questions and policy issues cannot be solved from one disciplinary perspective. CREATe projects typically involve collaboration. We take empirical, historical, computational, cultural, sociological or economic approaches seriously. Within law, we are anchored in the subject areas of intellectual property, information and competition law.

Agility with a long view

CREATe has the ambition to contribute to the big questions of our time. In a fast moving technological environment, sustained intervention needs to take the long view. We try to be responsive but not fast. Our policy contributions include EU and UK copyright policy, platform regulation and the wider questions of innovation, creative economy and the digital public sphere.

The Copyright Evidence Portal gives access to the world’s current knowledge about copyright law and its effects – as a data-minable Wiki catalogue and through visualizations. is an independent online resource intended to make UK copyright law accessible to everyone through authoritative and accessible guidance.

A digital archive of primary sources on copyright from the invention of the printing press (c. 1450) to the Berne Convention (1886) and beyond, co-produced with CIPIL / University of Cambridge.


11 March 2024

CREATe Celebrates AHRC Research Infrastructure Award

28 January 2020

Copyright law, cultural diversity and the Digital Single Market

27 November 2018

CREATe to lead Intellectual Property research in new UK Creative Industries Policy and Evidence Centre

8 November 2016

CREATe: a research centre at the intersection of law, technology and social science


CREATe as the “RCUK Centre for copyright and new business models in the creative economy” (2012-2018) investigated the future of creative production in the digital age, and in particular the role of copyright. The initial consortium included seven UK universities (Glasgow, East Anglia, Edinburgh, Goldsmiths University of London, Nottingham, St Andrews, and Strathclyde), and brought together an interdisciplinary team of academics from law, economics, management, computer science, sociology, psychology, ethnography and critical studies. In its national role, CREATe funded projects across the UK (including at Bath Spa, Bournemouth, Cambridge, City, Oxford, Kent, Leeds, Queen Mary University of London, Queen’s University Belfast) and worked with over 80 industry, public sector and civil society partners.

Good entry points to the initial research programme include:

  • Blog Book Series, a collection of 55 posts reflecting on the Impact of CREATe-funded research projects.
  • CREATe Festival (2016) at the Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) in London, exhibiting key findings from the first phase of CREATe.

We maintain an archive of past activities:

Research programme and projects (2012-2018)

Investigators (2012-2018)

Governance (2012-2018)


Directorate and Team

Martin Kretschmer

CREATe Director

Professor of Intellectual Property Law

Magali Eben

Magali Eben

CREATe Deputy Director

Senior Lecturer in Competition Law

Kris Erickson

CREATe Deputy Director

Professor of Social Data Science

Philip Schlesinger

Professorial Fellow (CREATe Deputy Director 2012-2024)

Professor in Cultural Theory (CCPR)

Luis Porangaba

Co-Director, CREATe & LLM IP Director

Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law

Aleks Sobieraj

CREATe Centre Manager

Diane McGrattan

CREATe Centre Administrator

Kenneth Barr

Postdoctoral Researcher / AHRC Creative Industries Policy & Evidence Centre (PEC)

Gabriele Cifrodelli

Research and Teaching Assistant / CREATe blog editor

Elena Cooper

Senior Research Fellow / Leverhulme ECF Fellow

Arthur Ehlinger

Knowledge Exchange Officer and Researcher

Ula Furgal

Lecturer in Intellectual Property and Information Law / Managing Editor, CREATe Working Paper series

Matteo Frigeri


Marta Iljadica

Public Domain Lead (Co-Director 2019-2022)

Senior Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law

Aline Iramina

Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law

Zihao Li

Lecturer in Technology Law

Stefan Luca

Postdoctoral Researcher in Platform Regulation / CREATe blog editor

Stavros Makris

Lecturer in Competition Law

Bartolomeo Meletti

Creative Director

Co-Investigator H2020 reCreating Europe / AHRC Creative Industries Policy & Evidence Centre (PEC)

Konstantinos Stylianou

Decentralised Economy Lead

Professor of Competition Law and Regulation

Amy Thomas

Amy Thomas

Lecturer in Intellectual Property and Information Law / Managing Editor, Evidence Portal

Sheona Burrow

Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Part time)

Thomas Margoni

Visiting Professor and CREATe Fellow

Research Professor of Intellectual Property Law, KU Leuven

CREATe Fellows

CREATe Fellows are honorary positions specifically designed to increase interdisciplinary capacity. Fellows play a full part in the Centre's life, and may spend periods in Glasgow. For Industry Fellows (2012-18), see here.

Dr Marcella Favale

Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM)

Prof. Rebecca Giblin

Melbourne Law School

Prof. Graham Greenleaf

School of Law

Dr Georg von Graevenitz

School of Business and Management

Prof. Paul Heald

College of Law

Asst. Prof. Martin Husovec

London School of Economics

Dr Pinar Oruc

University of Manchester

Assoc. Prof. Christian Peukert

HEC Lausanne (Faculty of Business and Economics)

Assoc. Prof. Joost Poort

University of Amsterdam, Institute for Information Law

Dr Sukhpreet Singh

Consultant at Five Rivers Consulting (CREATe R&D Manager 2012-18)

Dr Inge Sorenson

Lecturer in Media Policy (Theatre, Film and Television Studies)

Prof. Ruth Towse

Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM)

Assoc. Prof. Andrea Wallace

Associate Professor in Law at the University of Exeter

Dr Xiaoren Wang

Lecturer in Law at the University of Dundee

Ayse Gizem Yasar

Assistant Professorial Lecturer at London School of Economics

Doctoral Researchers

Andreas Giorgallis (PhD)

Thesis title: Restitution of Colonial Cultural Objects: Questioning Colonial Amnesia?

Supervisors: Dr Marta Iljadica, Dr Christa Roodt

Aline Iramina (PhD)

Thesis title: Copyright governance by algorithm: Towards a more transparent regime?

Supervisors: Professor Martin Kretschmer, Dr Elena Cooper

Seher Kurt (PhD)

Thesis title: Digital authoritarian forms of big data governance

Supervisors: Professor Bridgette Wessels, Professor Martin Kretschmer, Professor Andrew Hoskins

Zihao Ll (PhD)

Thesis title: Data protection in the context of online personalised pricing in the EU and China: A comparative analysis

Supervisors: Professor Martin Kretschmer, Dr Luis Porangaba, Professor Thomas Margoni

Jie Liu (PhD)

Thesis title: Proposal for collective management reform on copyright and related rights in China: From the perspective of license models, technology and competition

Supervisors: Professor Thomas Margoni, Professor Martin Kretschmer

Bartolomeo Meletti (PhD)

Thesis title: Fairness in Copyright Law

Supervisors: Professor Martin Kretschmer, Dr Marta Iljadica

Methinee Suwannakit (PhD)

Thesis title: Protection of privacy and personal data in the digital age: the case study of individual media users

Supervisors: Professor Thomas Margoni, Professor Martin Kretschmer

Gabriele Cifrodelli (PhD)

Thesis title: Can an Artificial Intelligence (AI) be considered an inventor? Prospects and implications for this new or hypothetical inventorship under the current patent system.

Supervisors: Dr Luis Porangaba, Professor Martin Kretschmer

Weiwei Yi (PhD)

Thesis title: An Empirical Review on the Legal Basis of ‘Legitimate Interest’ in the EU Data Protection Law: How to Reach an Interest Balance between Controllers and Data Subjects in the Context of Digital Marketing?

Supervisors: Professor Martin Kretschmer, Amy Thomas

Joséphine Sangaré (PhD)

Thesis title: Public Private Partnerships in Cyber Capacity Building

Supervisors: Professor Martin Kretschmer, Dr Ula Furgał, Professor Andrew Hoskins


Wenyu Zhou (PhD)

Thesis title: Market Dominance of Online Platforms in the Digital Economys

Supervisors: Professor Mark Furse, Dr Magali Eben, Dr Florence Thepot


Yingying Zhu (PhD)

Thesis title:  A critical analysis of the application of merger control in China and in the European Union to big data

Supervisors: Professor Mark Furse, Dr Magali Eben

Louise Jane Andrew (PhD)

Thesis title: Driving necessary innovation or “Generally Inconvenient”: Do patents help or hinder meeting the challenges of modern global crises? What proposals, if any, might we make for change in the United Kingdom and in an international context

Supervisors: Dr Luis Porangaba, Professor Martin Kretschmer

Former Members

Ian Anderson | Senior Lecturer (Information Studies)

Megan Blakely | Research Assistant and PhD student, graduating 2018 / Lecturer in Law at Lancaster University

Joy Davidson | CREATe Centre Manager [Seconded as Senior University Archivist]

Ronan Deazley - Founding director of CREATe (2012) | 2015 - 2019 at School of Law, Queen's University, Belfast

Lilian Edwards - CREATe Deputy Director (2012-2018) | Professor of Internet Law (University of Strathclyde) [since January 2019: Professor of Law, Innovation and Society at Newcastle University]

Ally Farnhill | Graduate Teaching Assistant (& PhD candidate) / CopyrightX: Glasgow Assistant Teaching Fellow

Theo Koutmeridis - Senior Lecturer in Economics (Adam Smith Business School) | [Formerly CREATe research fellow in economics and lead editor of the Copyright Evidence Wiki from 2015-2017]

Pauline McBride | Honorary Teaching Fellow (School of Law)

Andrew McHugh - Centre Manager (2012-2016) | Since 2016 Senior IT and Data Services Manager at the Urban Big Data Centre

Jaakko Miettinen | Research Assistant and PhD student (behavioural economics), graduating 2019

Kerry Patterson | Edwin Morgan Project Officer 2014-2017, CREATe Community Manager 2017-2021

Jesus Rodriguez Perez - CREATe Data Specialist until 2017 | Lecturer in Data Science at the University of Glasgow

Victoria Stobo | EnDOW Project and PhD student, CREATe Honorary Research Fellow 2018 | Lecturer at University of Liverpool

Peter Bennett | CREATe Digital Resources Officer

Janet Burgess | PhD student (music and copyright), graduating 2021

Florence Thépot | Lecturer in Competition and EU Law (2015-2022) [since September 2022: Lecturer in Law at the University of Strasbourg]

Rosie Wilson | LLM (Research) student, graduating October 2021

Jiarong Zhang | PhD student (music and copyright law), graduating 2022 | Assistant Professor in Intellectual Property Law at Trinity College Dublin

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