Diligent Searching in the Dark – Identifying images out of context

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Kerry Patterson, Project Officer for CREATe’s Digitising the Edwin Morgan Scrapbooks project describes some approaches and challenges in her efforts to carry out diligent search for thousands of images with little original context.

The enormous visual appeal of the poet Edwin Morgan’s scrapbooks is countered by a large complication for the copyright researcher. Morgan rarely gives a source for the images he uses, meaning that the 16 scrapbook volumes contain tens of thousands of images with no note of their original context. For the researcher performing a diligent search as part of a mass digitisation project, the difficulty is this; without any supporting information for an image, what resources can be used to carry out a diligent search? Do the IPO’s Diligent Search guidelines offer assistance?


Double Page from Scrapbook 12

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European Policy for Intellectual Property (EPIP) 10th Annual Conference

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European Policy for Intellectual Property

European Commission

RCUK Centre for Copyright and New Business Models in the Creative Economy (CREATe)

University of Glasgow

IP in the Creative Economy
CREATe, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK
2-3 September 2015

Call for Extended Abstracts, Full Papers and Proposals for Themed Sessions will close on Wednesday, May 20, 2015. Please visit the conference website

CREATe, the RCUK Centre for Copyright and New Business Models in the Creative Economy, will host the 10th Annual Conference of the EPIP Association (European Policy for Intellectual Property) association in Glasgow, September 2-3, 2015. Scholars and practitioners interested in the economic, legal, political and managerial aspects of intellectual property rights are encouraged to attend the conference with or without scientific paper presentation.

EPIP 2015 is organised in cooperation with the European Commission who will participate in several panels.

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Reinventing Copyright Licensing: The Copyright Hub & Emergent Infrastructures for IP Trading

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The research team from CREATe’s new project at The University of Edinburgh on The Copyright Hub & Emergent Infrastructures for IP Trading explain their research goals. By comparing various emergent policy- and business-led initiatives in the creative economy, they attempt to capture, at an early stage, the constitution and evolution of new infrastructures designed to reduce the costs of securing licenses to use copyrighted works. The post was written by PhD candidate Hung The Nguyen.

imageThe history of copyright can be traced back to the enactment of Statute of Anne in 1710, designed to incentivise writers. Much has changed in the world over the subsequent three hundred years. Nowadays, questions are raised over whether copyright and intellectual property (IP) are still able to provide the necessary incentives for creativity in a modern world or whether they have become outdated laws which obstruct innovation and economic growth.

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Some lateral thinking for CREATe

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schlesingerPhilip Schlesinger, Professor in Cultural Policy at the University of Glasgow, and Deputy Director of CREATe, reflects on a recent workshop held at the University of Glasgow.

I convened The Lateral Seminar, a one-day workshop, which took place on 16 March 2015, to push forward new thinking on CREATe’s socio-cultural research and to look for potential points of integration of research conducted to date.

CREATe understands law, and in particular copyright law, to be a key condition for cultural production. Current far-reaching change in the digital environment requires us to develop a new framework that permits a more integrated approach to CREATe’s diverse portfolio of work. That’s why we engaged in some lateral thinking.

Contributors on the day were Raymond Boyle (Glasgow), Martin Kretschmer (Glasgow), Angela McRobbie (Goldsmiths), Keith Negus (Goldsmiths), Burkhard Schafer (Edinburgh), John Street (UEA) and Robin Williams (Edinburgh).

Stimulated by short talks given by each of the participants, several emergent themes were discussed. In essence, the workshop’s red thread of argument went like this: it is now essential to regroup work deriving from CREATe’s first two years, irrespective of where it has been situated in the original thematic set-up; it is, furthermore, important to inform continuing work as far as possible with a new framework that effects more integration and therefore adds value to what has been done; and finally, there are topics that we can identify now that might inform the next phase of CREATe’s work.

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The Dream Would be Brick Lane – Assessing the Impact of IP Within the European Fashion Industry

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CREATe’s Carolina Bandinelli and Angela McRobbie both from Goldsmiths, University of London summarise some findings from their work exploring how questions of Intellectual Property impact on the professional practices of designers and design teams within the fashion industry.

Milan Fashion Week 1The Fashion Work Package for CREATe has focused on a number of intersecting questions. What is it like to embark on a small fashion enterprise in recent years? How do young designers actually create their own working environment as part of the process of establishing a name for themselves soon after they have graduated from a degree course? And in this context how do questions of IP and copyright impact on their everyday practice? We also wanted to open out the study to include three cities in Europe, i.e. London, Berlin and Milan, first to get a sense of how different urban environments and creative industry policies affected these small-scale enterprises and second and more significantly to see how in a European context the reality of the economic recession and wide-scale unemployment was pushing young creative graduates to invent careers for themselves. What we report below is an initial summary and comment on the Milan CREATe work.

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Ubiquitous Chipped – Reflections on the Designing Smart Cities Conference

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACREATe Investigator Dr. Daithí Mac Síthigh from University of Newcastle Law School offers his thoughts from attending the recent Designing Smart Cities Conference at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. This account originally featured on Daithí’s Lex Ferenda blog.

The event was organised by CREATe Deputy Director Professor Lilian Edwards – she also came up with the title of this post!

I’m just returning from a fascinating two-day conference on ‘designing smart cities’ at the University of Strathclyde, chaired by Prof. Lilian Edwards (who is responsible for the title of this post) and supported by CREATe, Horizon, and Glasgow City Council.

I particularly enjoyed this event. I have an on-off academic interest in the interactions between law and the city (which brings in geography and architecture) (seen most obviously in my ‘virtual walls’ article), and further personal interests in transportation and in modernist architecture. And, of course, in both domains, “technology”. Glasgow has received Government funding after a competition: see Future City Glasgow, and so was an ideal location.

There are various plans for audio, articles and the like; these are just a few quick first impressions. No offence to those omitted – my note taking varied across the two days, especially in and around my own contributions. (I was there to speak on the sharing economy, which is work at an early stage, and leading me into interesting place – I had a lively lunchtime conversation about English vs London vs Scottish taxi and private hire licensing, on which I could bore for, well, Scotland/London/England…).

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Creativity as a Service

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Dr. Michael Brown, CREATe investigator and Human Factors Research Fellow from Horizon Digital Economy Research at the University of Nottingham offer a perspective of his recent experiences interviewing semi-professional photographers.

1186873_76609070Over the last few months I’ve been interviewing ‘Pro-Am’ photographers to explore their practices, especially around the use of information about photos themselves (meta-data). These photographers are people that have been paid for their work but don’t do photography as their ‘day job’. They reported capturing and using all manner of meta data: Time, date and place of capture, camera setting and social setting. How this information is captured is as variable as what is captured with various combinations of digital and non-digital solutions used for the management of meta-data. Pens and paper, smart phones, complex multi-level folder systems and even social media sites are used to record this information. While most seem to have quite a relaxed attitude towards controlling information, for others it seems the flow and control of meta data is almost as important as the act of photography itself.

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Understanding UK Copyright Law: An Interactive Workshop for Music Writers and Composers

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Post by Bartolomeo Meletti, Lead Producer of (a co-production between CREATe, University of Glasgow and Bournemouth University)

On Thursday 19th March 2015, the Digital Catapult Centre hosted the second in the series of workshops entitled ‘Understanding UK Copyright Law’, a joint initiative of the Digital Catapult, CREATe,, and the Copyright Hub. The purpose of these workshops is to provide useful guidance about copyright to different sectoral groups of the creative industries, starting from the questions and concerns that these groups have. The first workshop of the series was held at the Digital Catapult Centre on 3rd December 2014, and was addressed to photographers and illustrators. On 19th March, the focus was on the music sector and the event attracted more than 40 attendees from London and across the UK, consisting mainly of songwriters, composers, and music producers.

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Cultural intermediaries and how artists get heard

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Post by George Musgrave (University of East Anglia)

How do musicians get their work heard, and what role do those actors whom Bourdieu first labelled ‘cultural intermediaries’ – that is, middle-men who occupy that conceptual space between production and consumption, and are entrusted with “presentation and representation” – play in that quest?

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