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Research Blog Series: Death and Digital Assets

For the Research Blog Series, Lilian Edwards writes on the research exploring how ownership and control of cultural assets produced by users on social media sites are regulated by copyright and contract law. Projects: User Generated Cultural Content (UGCC): Users as Creators, “Walled Gardens”, and the Preservation and Bequeathing of Novel Digital Cultural Assets, Investigators: Lilian Edwards, University of Strathclyde, Edina Harbinja, (now University of Hertfordshire) with RA Laurence Diver, Edinburgh University (on Memento Mori) What did your research aim to do? We aimed to examine how ownership and control of cultural assets produced by users on social media sites – text, photos, videos etc – are regulated by copyright and contract law. We also looked at two other key sites where cultural or copyright … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Intermediaries

Morten Hviid presents research on the impact of digitisation on the book, music and video games industries and the interaction between creators and new digital platforms, for the Research Blog Series.  Project: Intermediaries Investigators: Morten Hviid (UEA), Sofia Izquierdo Sanchez (University of Huddersfield), Sabine Jacques (UEA). Project initially led by Emily Laidlaw (University of Calgary) What did your research aim to do? The purpose of this project was to investigate the structure of selected creative industries, in particular the relationship between content creators, traditional intermediaries and platforms, to determine whether the current ecosystem maximises creativity and economic growth. To do so, we decided to focus on three key industries: books, music, and video games. Firstly, we map out the impact of digitalisation on … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: The Cultural Enterprise Office and its clients

Kicking off the theme of Intermediaries, Platforms and Users for the Research Blog Series, Philip Schlesinger sets out the research into the cultural business support intermediary. Project: Supporting creative business: Cultural Enterprise Office and its clients (A Creative Economy Knowledge Exchange Project). Investigators: Professor Philip Schlesinger (PI), Dr Melanie Selfe (Co-I), Dr Ealasaid Munro (PDRA), the University of Glasgow. What did your research aim to do? The research aimed to undertake the first major detailed study of a cultural business support intermediary. How did you do it? A primary method was team ethnography in Cultural Enterprise Office. This was complemented by extensive access to the organisation’s documentation and a range of interviews with its clients, staff and the mentors used for training.

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Research Blog Series: The Copyright Evidence Wiki

In the final Research Blog Series post on the theme of Regulation & Enforcement, Kris Erickson presents the resource making copyright studies more accessible. Project:  The Copyright Evidence Wiki How can policy makers and academics engage with the growing body of empirical work on the effects of copyright law? The Copyright Evidence Wiki addresses this challenge by cataloguing and indexing studies in an open, transparent and accessible resource. The project was undertaken by the RCUK funded CREATe centre, and further supported by a grant from the Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) at the University of Glasgow. The current phase of the Copyright Evidence Wiki is supported by AHRC Follow-on Funding for ‘Unlocking Co–Creative Possibilities‘ (AH/P013341/1). Investigators: The Impact Acceleration Account award was held … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Potential Legal Responses to Threats to the Production of News in a Digital Environment

Richard Danbury sets out findings from research evaluating the legal options to address the threats to the business models of commercial news production, for the Research Blog Series. Project: Appraising Potential Legal Responses to Threats to the Production of News in a Digital Environment Investigators: The principal investigator was Professor Lionel Bently of CIPIL (University of Cambridge), collaborating with Professor Ian Hargreaves of Cardiff University. The research associate was Dr Richard Danbury (CIPIL). What did your research aim to do? The business models of commercial news production have been seriously undermined by various mechanisms, not least digitisation and the development of the Internet. Copyright has been repeatedly suggested as being a potential solution for news organisations in many different countries. Indeed, while the research was on-going, the … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: The Evolution of the UK’s TV Drama production sector

Richard Paterson presents his research on the changing Business Models of TV Drama production companies, for the Research Blog Series. Project: Modelling the Evolution of the TV Drama production sector in the UK Investigator: Richard Paterson, British Film Institute The project was initiated to follow up on research carried out in the late 1990s which tracked the individual careers of creative workers in UK television through a series of questionnaires over a four year period. The subsequent analysis of this data indicated another issue of increasing importance: the ways in which the business models of ‘independent’ production companies were changing. I continued tracking these changes in the subsequent period and with the Fellowship was able both to amass further data … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Copyright Litigation in the English Courts 2009-2015

Luke McDonagh presents the project that investigated cases on copyright heard at the High Court and Intellectual Property Enterprise Court, for the Research Blog Series. Project: Copyright Litigation in the English Courts 2009-2015: Data and Analysis Investigators:  Primary Investigator: Georg von Graevenitz, Queen Mary University of London Co-Investigator: Luke McDonagh, City University of London Senior Research Assistant: Leslie Lansman, Queen Mary University of London Research Assistant: Thomas Loukaris-Kapnidis, Independent researcher What did your research aim to do? In 2015 CREATe agreed to facilitate this project to develop a dataset containing the details of all court cases on copyright heard at the High Court (HC) during 2009-2015 and at the Intellectual Property Enterprise Court (IPEC) from the same period, 2009-2015. The project team aimed to collect data on copyright litigation from the paper records held at the HC and … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Jurisprudence in the European Court of Justice

Continuing the Regulation & Enforcement theme of the Research Blog Series, Marcella Favale summarises two pieces of CREATe research on the European Court of Justice. Favale, Marcella and Kretschmer, Martin and Torremans, Paul L.C., Is There a EU Copyright Jurisprudence? An Empirical Analysis of the Workings of the European Court of Justice (August 13, 2015). Modern Law Review 79(1): 31-75 (January 2016). Available at SSRN:  https://ssrn.com/abstract=2643699 The Court of Justice of the European Union has been suspected of carrying out a harmonising agenda (e.g. making EU law more homogeneous) instead of simply interpreting EU law. Two things have been reproached to the Court, in copyright matters: 1) that it has failed to develop a coherent copyright jurisprudence (lacking domain expertise, … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Assessing the IP Small Claims Track

Sheona Burrow presents the CREATe project that evaluated the performance of the new IPEC Small Claims Track (introduced in 2012), for the Research Blog Series. Project: Assessing the IP Small Claims Track Investigators: Martin Kretschmer and Sheona Burrow, University of Glasgow The work package Assessing the IP Small Claims Track was designed to fill a gap in empirical knowledge of intellectual property enforcement in the UK and has complemented simultaneous research by Helmers, McDonagh and others, as well as the CREATe theme on enforcement. The IP Small Claims Track was introduced in October 2012, as Create was being established, as a forum for the resolution of copyright, design and trade mark disputes valued at less than £10,000. This project aimed to evaluate the … Continue reading

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Research Blog Series: Collective Management Organisations and Cross-Territorial Licensing

Simone Schroff presents further research from the University of East Anglia on music collecting societies, for the Research Blog Series Project: Regulating the Collecting Societies Investigators: Morten Hviid (University of East Anglia), Simone Schroff (University of Amsterdam) and John Street (University of East Anglia) Our short project examined the impact of EU-level regulation of music collecting societies (or Collective Management Organisations [CMOs]), focusing on cross-territorial licensing for streaming in comparison to analogue uses such as broadcasting. It examined the extent to which the competition between CMOs has facilitated the availability of streaming licenses for online services such as Spotify. Like copyright law, CMOs are traditionally organised along national jurisdictions, often having a de-facto or legal monopoly to administer the rights. They … Continue reading

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