The research team from CREATe’s new project at The University of Edinburgh on The Copyright Hub & Emergent Infrastructures for IP Trading explain their research goals. By comparing various emergent policy- and business-led initiatives in the creative economy, they attempt to capture, at an early stage, the constitution and evolution of new infrastructures designed to reduce the costs of securing licenses to use copyrighted works. The post was written by PhD candidate Hung The Nguyen.
The history of copyright can be traced back to the enactment of Statute of Anne in 1710, designed to incentivise writers. Much has changed in the world over the subsequent three hundred years. Nowadays, questions are raised over whether copyright and intellectual property (IP) are still able to provide the necessary incentives for creativity in a modern world or whether they have become outdated laws which obstruct innovation and economic growth.
Philip Schlesinger, Professor in Cultural Policy at the University of Glasgow, and Deputy Director of CREATe, reflects on a recent workshop held at the University of Glasgow.
I convened The Lateral Seminar, a one-day workshop, which took place on 16 March 2015, to push forward new thinking on CREATe’s socio-cultural research and to look for potential points of integration of research conducted to date.
CREATe understands law, and in particular copyright law, to be a key condition for cultural production. Current far-reaching change in the digital environment requires us to develop a new framework that permits a more integrated approach to CREATe’s diverse portfolio of work. That’s why we engaged in some lateral thinking.
Contributors on the day were Raymond Boyle (Glasgow), Martin Kretschmer (Glasgow), Angela McRobbie (Goldsmiths), Keith Negus (Goldsmiths), Burkhard Schafer (Edinburgh), John Street (UEA) and Robin Williams (Edinburgh).
Stimulated by short talks given by each of the participants, several emergent themes were discussed. In essence, the workshop’s red thread of argument went like this: it is now essential to regroup work deriving from CREATe’s first two years, irrespective of where it has been situated in the original thematic set-up; it is, furthermore, important to inform continuing work as far as possible with a new framework that effects more integration and therefore adds value to what has been done; and finally, there are topics that we can identify now that might inform the next phase of CREATe’s work.
CREATe’s Carolina Bandinelli and Angela McRobbie both from Goldsmiths, University of London summarise some findings from their work exploring how questions of Intellectual Property impact on the professional practices of designers and design teams within the fashion industry.
The Fashion Work Package for CREATe has focused on a number of intersecting questions. What is it like to embark on a small fashion enterprise in recent years? How do young designers actually create their own working environment as part of the process of establishing a name for themselves soon after they have graduated from a degree course? And in this context how do questions of IP and copyright impact on their everyday practice? We also wanted to open out the study to include three cities in Europe, i.e. London, Berlin and Milan, first to get a sense of how different urban environments and creative industry policies affected these small-scale enterprises and second and more significantly to see how in a European context the reality of the economic recession and wide-scale unemployment was pushing young creative graduates to invent careers for themselves. What we report below is an initial summary and comment on the Milan CREATe work.
CREATe Investigator Dr. Daithí Mac Síthigh from University of Newcastle Law School offers his thoughts from attending the recent Designing Smart Cities Conference at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. This account originally featured on Daithí’s Lex Ferenda blog.
The event was organised by CREATe Deputy Director Professor Lilian Edwards – she also came up with the title of this post!
I’m just returning from a fascinating two-day conference on ‘designing smart cities’ at the University of Strathclyde, chaired by Prof. Lilian Edwards (who is responsible for the title of this post) and supported by CREATe, Horizon, and Glasgow City Council.
I particularly enjoyed this event. I have an on-off academic interest in the interactions between law and the city (which brings in geography and architecture) (seen most obviously in my ‘virtual walls’ article), and further personal interests in transportation and in modernist architecture. And, of course, in both domains, “technology”. Glasgow has received Government funding after a competition: see Future City Glasgow, and so was an ideal location.
There are various plans for audio, articles and the like; these are just a few quick first impressions. No offence to those omitted – my note taking varied across the two days, especially in and around my own contributions. (I was there to speak on the sharing economy, which is work at an early stage, and leading me into interesting place – I had a lively lunchtime conversation about English vs London vs Scottish taxi and private hire licensing, on which I could bore for, well, Scotland/London/England…).
Dr. Michael Brown, CREATe investigator and Human Factors Research Fellow from Horizon Digital Economy Research at the University of Nottingham offer a perspective of his recent experiences interviewing semi-professional photographers.
Over the last few months I’ve been interviewing ‘Pro-Am’ photographers to explore their practices, especially around the use of information about photos themselves (meta-data). These photographers are people that have been paid for their work but don’t do photography as their ‘day job’. They reported capturing and using all manner of meta data: Time, date and place of capture, camera setting and social setting. How this information is captured is as variable as what is captured with various combinations of digital and non-digital solutions used for the management of meta-data. Pens and paper, smart phones, complex multi-level folder systems and even social media sites are used to record this information. While most seem to have quite a relaxed attitude towards controlling information, for others it seems the flow and control of meta data is almost as important as the act of photography itself. Continue reading
CREATe researchers were invited to the Scottish Parliament on 18 March to showcase cutting edge social science research in the ‘Social Science Making a Difference’ event. Supported by the Scottish Parliament and ESRC, and organized by the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, the event brought together more than 100 attendees from various organizations and stakeholders working with and benefiting from social science research and academic researchers from the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh.
The specialist research centres and projects selected to present their work on this occasion shared with attendees their latest social science research findings which address key societal challenges of the day, showcased the solutions they have developed through interactive multimedia resources and appraised them of key upcoming events.
Post by Bartolomeo Meletti, Lead Producer of CopyrightUser.org (a co-production between CREATe, University of Glasgow and Bournemouth University)
On Thursday 19th March 2015, the Digital Catapult Centre hosted the second in the series of workshops entitled ‘Understanding UK Copyright Law’, a joint initiative of the Digital Catapult, CREATe, CopyrightUser.org, and the Copyright Hub. The purpose of these workshops is to provide useful guidance about copyright to different sectoral groups of the creative industries, starting from the questions and concerns that these groups have. The first workshop of the series was held at the Digital Catapult Centre on 3rd December 2014, and was addressed to photographers and illustrators. On 19th March, the focus was on the music sector and the event attracted more than 40 attendees from London and across the UK, consisting mainly of songwriters, composers, and music producers.
Post by Dr George Musgrave (University of East Anglia) based on a presentation at a CREATe capacity building event hosted by the Centre for Competition Policy & University of East Anglia, Norwich
How do musicians get their work heard, and what role do those actors whom Bourdieu first labelled ‘cultural intermediaries’ – that is, middle-men who occupy that conceptual space between production and consumption, and are entrusted with “presentation and representation” – play in that quest?
We are pleased to announce the release of CREATe’s latest Working Paper, the twenty-eighth release in the series. Monkeying Around with Copyright – Animals, AIs and Authorship in Law by David Komuves, Jesus Niebla Zatarain, Burkhard Schafer and Laurence Diver considers how advances in artificial intelligence have changed the ways in which computers create “original” work. It reflects on how analogies that may have worked sufficiently well in the past, when the technology had few if any commercially viable applications, are now reaching the limit of their usefulness. It presents a radical thought experiment in relation to computer generated art, challenging the legal responses to computer generated works and discussing their similarity to works by animals.
The paper was originally presented at the Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposion (IRIS), held in Salzburg between the 26th and 28th February. There it had the distinction of winning third place in the LexisNexis best paper award. For CREATe, and co-author Professor Burkhard Schafer, this offers a pleasing symmetry. Schafer’s first CREATe Working Paper, “CCTV sniffing”: Copyright and Data Protection Implications, is a modified version of a paper that won the same award when the conference was held in 2013. On that occasion Schafer’s co-authors were fellow CREATe investigators Smita Kheria, Daithi Mac Sithigh and Judith Rauhofer. Fast forward two years and his prize winning co-authors are a CREATe research assistant and two CREATe PhD students, a fact that demonstrates the success of CREATe’s capacity building efforts. A suitably delighted Schafer said “for a group of researchers this young to get nominated for this prestigious award is testimony of the quality of our postgraduate students and the excellent support they get in Edinburgh to make the transition to academic careers”.
On Tuesday 10 March, visiting scholar Christopher Buccafusco (IIT Chicago-Kent) delivered a public lecture as part of CREATe’s March line-up of events. His highly stimulating and compelling presentation took place in the suitably arranged Humanities Lecture Theatre at the University of Glasgow. The audience included colleagues from across law, business, management, economics, art history, as well as IP students from the Law School’s LLM programme.